Laboratory measurements of sperm quality which concern macroscopic (sperm volume, liquefaction, viscosity) and microscopic (sperm number, motility, vitality, morphology, maturation, coagulations, cell types) parameters .Semen analysis is a standard procedure followed in order to determine the proper function of testes and secretory activities of the glands.
Fragmentation of sperm DNA is a factor that indicates a male infertility issue, since spermatozoa with shredded DNA are not capable of proper fertilization, and if this occurs, there is a high risk of forming a pathologic embryo or affecting a blastocyst’s implantation. This test investigates the integrity of sperm DNA revealing the amount of DNA damage that may affect a couple’s fertility.
A research procedure evaluating mitochondrial activity. Mitochondrial potential indicates sperm functionality as correlated with sperm motility and capacity of fertilization.
Mitotracker Mitochondrial Selective Probes
Fluorescence microscopy being used to optimize nucleus DNA density as spermatozoa’s chromatin is normally, highly coiled.
Α research procedure which investigates by mimicry, the capability of spermatozoa’s membrane to fuse with the plasma membrane of the oocyte.
A procedure which separates spermatozoa from seminal plasma for both diagnostic tests and therapeutic purposes. The most suitable technique according to the nature of the sperm is chosen, in order to collect a high percentage of morphologically normal and motile cells, free from debris, non germ cells and dead spermatozoa. After the selection is completed, the appropriate ART (assisted reproductive technology) is used.
A test which investigates the presence of antibodies in sperm reacting with antigens on spermatozoa. These antibodies are considered as an immunological infertility factor.
The correct freezing procedure using the “Glycerol Egg Yolk Citrate” cryoprotectant minimizes the intracellular ice crystal formation. As a result, the survival percentage after thawing is the best possible.
Some men face problems that involve a complete inability to produce an ejaculate with sperm for fertilization processes. This is called azoospermia (obstructive or non obstructive) and can be caused by several reasons that can be genetic or acquired. In these cases surgical extraction of sperm is a viable alternative.
The removal of the sperm can be accomplished, under general anesthesia, by needle aspiration or by surgical means from the epididimys or directly from the testicular tissue. The sperm found can then be used for ICSI. In greater quantity of sperm is important to be cryopreserved for future use.